Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the intelligence exhibited by machines or software. It is also the name of the academic field of study which studies how to create computers and computer software that are capable of intelligent behavior (Wikipedia).
Augmented Reality (AR) is the integration of digital information with live video or the user’s environment in real time. Basically, AR takes an existing picture and blends new information into it.
The key to augmented reality is the software. Augmented reality programs are written in special 3D augmented reality programs such as D’Fusion, Unifye Viewer or FLARToolKit. These programs allow the developer to tie animation or contextual digital information in the computer program to an augmented reality “marker” in the real world.
The end user must download a software application (app) or browser plug-in in order to experience augmented reality. Most AR applications are built in Flash or Shockwave and require a webcam program to deliver the information in the marker to the computer. The marker, which is sometimes called a target, might be a barcode or simple series of geometric shapes. When the computer’s AR app or browser plug-in receives the digital information contained in the marker, it begins to execute the code for the augmented reality program.
AR applications for smartphones include global positioning system (GPS) to pinpoint the user’s location and its compass to detect device orientation. Sophisticated AR programs used by the military for training may include machine vision, object recognition and gesture recognition technologies.
Big Data is an evolving term that describes any voluminous amount of structured, semi-structured and unstructured data that has the potential to be mined for information.
Big data can be characterized by 3Vs: the extreme volume of data, the wide variety of types of data, and the velocity at which the data must be processed. Although big data doesn't refer to any specific quantity, the term is often used when speaking about petabytes and exabytes of data, much of which cannot be integrated easily.
Bluetooth is a telecommunications industry specification that describes how mobile phones, computers, and personal digital assistants (PDAs) can be easily interconnected using a short-range wireless connection. Using this technology, users of cellular phones, pagers, and personal digital assistants can buy a three-in-one phone that can double as a portable phone at home or in the office, get quickly synchronized with information in a desktop or notebook computer, initiate the sending or receiving of a fax, initiate a print-out, and, in general, have all mobile and fixed computer devices be totally coordinated.
Bluetooth requires that a low-cost transceiver chip be included in each device. The tranceiver transmits and receives in a previously unused frequency band of 2.45 GHz that is available globally (with some variation of bandwidth in different countries). In addition to data, up to three voice channels are available. Each device has a unique 48-bit address from the IEEE 802 standard. Connections can be point-to-point or multipoint. The maximum range is 10 meters. Data can be exchanged at a rate of 1 megabit per second (up to 2 Mbps in the second generation of the technology). A frequency hop scheme allows devices to communicate even in areas with a great deal of electromagnetic interference. Built-in encryption and verification is provided.
The technology got its unusual name in honor of Harald Bluetooth, king of Denmark in the mid-tenth century.
B2B (Business-to-Business) On the Internet, B2B (business-to-business), also known as e-biz, is the exchange of products, services, or information between businesses rather than between businesses and consumers. Although early interest centered on the growth of retailing on the Internet (sometimes called e-tailing), forecasts have predicted that B2B revenue will soon far exceed business-to-consumers (B2C) revenue.
Buzz Marketing – Also known as viral marketing or word-of-mouth marketing, aims to foster consumer conversations about products and services and spread a company’s message via social media.
Cloud DBMS (cloud database management system) – is a database management system that is hosted by a third-party service provider on a remote server and accessed over the Internet.
A traditional database system is installed on a server at an organization’s site and data is stored and accessed directly or over a local area network (LAN). A cloud database management system, on the other hand, runs on a cloud provider’s platform and data can only be stored or accessed when there is an Internet connection.
Data Center A data center (sometimes spelled datacenter) is a centralized repository, either physical or virtual, for the storage, management, and dissemination of data and information organized around a particular body of knowledge or pertaining to a particular business.
HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) is the set of markup symbols or codes inserted in a file intended for display on a World Wide Web browser page. The markup tells the Web browser how to display a Web page's words and images for the user. Each individual markup code is referred to as an element (but many people also refer to it as a tag). Some elements come in pairs that indicate when some display effect is to begin and when it is to end.
HTML is a formal Recommendation by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) and is generally adhered to by the major browsers, Microsoft's Internet Explorer and Netscape's Navigator, which also provide some additional non-standard codes. The current version of HTML is HTML 4.0. However, both Internet Explorer and Netscape implement some features differently and provide non-standard extensions. Web developers using the more advanced features of HTML 4 may have to design pages for both browsers and send out the appropriate version to a user. Significant features in HTML 4 are sometimes described in general as dynamic HTML. What is sometimes referred to as HTML 5 is an extensible form of HTML called Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML).
HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) – is the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page.
The other main standard that controls how the World Wide Web works is HTML, which covers how Web pages are formatted and displayed.
IOT (Internet of Things) is an environment in which objects, animals or people are provided with unique identifiers and the ability to transfer data over a network without requiring human-to-human or human-to-computer interaction. IoT has evolved from the convergence of wireless technologies, micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) and the Internet. The concept may also be referred to as the Internet of Everything.
IP Address (Internet Protocol Address) is an identifier for a computer or device on a TCP/IP network. The format of an IP address is a 32-bit numeric address written as four numbers separated by periods. Each number can be zero to 255. For example, 22.214.171.124 could be an IP address.
An IP address can be static or dynamic. A static IP address will never change and it is a permanent Internet address. A dynamic IP address is a temporary address that is assigned each time a computer or device accesses the Internet.
NFC (Near-Field Communications) is a short range wireless connectivity standard that uses magnetic field induction to enable communication between devices when they're touched together, or brought within a few centimeters of each other. Jointly developed by Philips and Sony, the standard specifies a way for the devices to establish a peer-to-peer (P2P) network to exchange data. After the P2P network has been configured, another wireless communication technology, such as Bluetooth or Wi-Fi, can be used for longer range communication or for transferring larger amounts of data.
PayPal – is a Web-based application for the secure transfer of funds between member accounts. It doesn’t cost the user anything to join PayPal or to send money through the service, but there is a fee structure in place for those members who wish to receive money. PayPal relies on the existing infrastructure used by financial institutions and credit card companies and uses advanced fraud prevention technologies to enhance the security of transactions.
Max Levchin and Peter Theil founded PayPal in 1998. They hoped to make online shopping more appealing to the consumer by creating a secure payment system that would be as easy to use as taking money out of your wallet. To send money through PayPal, you just enter the recipient’s email address and the amount of money you want to send them.
By mid-2003, PayPal’s Mountain View, California-based offices were administering 30 million accounts in 38 countries around the world. EBay, the popular Web-based auction enterprise, acquired PayPal in October, 2002.
PURL (Persistent Uniform Resource Locator) – a type of URL that acts as an intermediary for a real URL of a Web resource. When you enter a PURL in a browser, the browser sends the page request to a PURL server which then returns the real URL of the page.
QR Code (Quick Response Code) is a two-dimensional barcode consisting of a black and white pixel pattern which allows to encode up to a few hundred characters. Today’s smartphones and tablets are able to recognize and decode them exceptionally fast.
Due to the widespread use of smartphones, QR Codes are mostly used for mobile marketing purposes these days. Marketers benefit from QR Codes by being able to add digital content like websites, videos, PDFs, image galleries or contact details to printed media such as flyers, posters, catalogues, and business cards.
Search Engine On the Internet, a search engine is a coordinated set of programs that includes:
• A spider (also called a “crawler” or a “bot”) that goes to every page or representative pages on every Web site that wants to be searchable and reads it, using hypertext links on each page to discover and read a site’s other pages
• A program that creates a huge index (sometimes called a “catalog”) from the pages that have been read.
• A program that receives your search request, compares it to the entries in the index, and returns results to you.
Major search engines such as Google, Yahoo (which uses Google), AltaVista, and Lycos index the content of a large portion of the Web and provide results that can run for pages – and consequently overwhelm the user.
Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is an area of website development that seeks to improve the way content is ranked by search engines in organic search results. Various approaches are taken to achieve that goal, including making sure the website architecture makes it easy for visitors to find content and that pages are mobile-friendly and load quickly.
Although there are legitimate companies that help Web sites improve their rankings, according to Google's page about SEO, most such offers that arrive in e-mail messages are of little-to-no value. The search engine's own Webmaster often gets SEO marketing offers suggesting that Google doesn't show up well in search results (which is quite unlikely). Google's recommendation for Webmasters? "Reserve the same skepticism for unsolicited e-mail about search engines as you do for "burn fat at night" diet pills or requests to help transfer funds from deposed dictators."
Instead of trying to game the system, sites should focus on providing visitors with useful content and a good user experience (UX). Partly because of the proliferation of bogus offers, the term search engine optimization has gotten a negative reputation in some circles. To put the focus on the website visitor, its been suggested that acronym SEO should stand for search experience optimization.
Before starting an SEO project, site owners should carefully read through the webmaster tools that each search engines provides and follow recommended best practices. Not only will doing so help pages rank better, but failure to follow recommendations could result in the site being improperly indexed. Worse still, the site could be completely blacklisted from the search engine. Certain black hat SEO techniques, such as keyword stuffing, are considered to be the SEO equivalent of spamming, and search engines will penalize them.
3D Printing is also known as desktop fabrication, it can form any material that can be obtained as a powder. For creating an object you need a digital 3D-model. You can scan a set of 3D images, or draw it using computer-assisted design or CAD software. You can also download them from internet. The digital 3D-model is usually saved in STL format and then sent to the printer. The process of "printing" a three-dimensional object layer-by-layer with equipment, which is quite similar with ink-jet printers.
One of the most important applications of 3D printing is in the medical industry. With 3D printing, surgeons can produce mockups of parts of their patient's body which needs to be operated upon.
3D printing make it possible to make a part from scratch in just hours. It allows designers and developers to go from flat screen to exact part.
Nowadays almost everything from aerospace components to toys are getting built with the help of 3D printers.
3D printing can provide great savings on assembly costs because it can print already assembled products. With 3D printing, companies can now experiment with new ideas and numerous design iterations with no extensive time or tooling expense. They can decide if product concepts are worth to allocate additional resources. 3D printing could even challenge mass production method in the future.
3D printing is going to impact so many industries, such as automotive, medical, business & industrial equipment, education, architecture, and consumer-product industries.
UID (Unique Identifier) is a numeric or alphanumeric string that is associated with a single entity within a given system. UIDs make it possible to address that entity, so that it can be accessed and interacted with.
An example of a UID:
A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a unique identifier that makes content addressable on the Internet by uniquely targeting items, such as text, video, images, and applications.
URL (Uniform Resource Locator) – is a specific type of uniform resource identifier (URI); the generic term for all types of names and addresses that refer to objects on the World Wide Web. The term “Web address” is a synonym for a URL that uses the HTTP/HTTPS protocol.
UI (User Interface) In information technology, the user interface is everything designed into an information device with which a human being may interact – including display screen, keyboard, mouse, light pen, the appearance of a desktop, illuminated characters, help messages, and how an application program of=r a Web site invites interaction and responds to it. In early computers, there was very little user interface except for a few buttons at an operator’s console. The user interface was largely in the form of punched card input and report output.
Later, a user was provided the ability to interact with a computer online and the user interface was a nearly blank display screen with a command line, a keyboard, and a set of commands and computer responses that were exchanged. This comand line interface led to one in which menus (list of choices written in text) predominated. And finally, the graphical user interface (GUI) arrived, originating mainly in Xerox’s Palo Alto Research Center, adopted and enhanced by Apple Computer, and finally effectively standardized by Microsoft in its Windows operating systems.
The user interface can arguably include the total “user experience” (UX), which may include the asthetic appearance of the device, response time, and the content that is presented to the user within the context of the user interface.
A Web presence (or Web site) is a collection of Web files on a particular subject that includes a beginning file called a home page. For example, most companies, organizations, or individuals that have Web sites have a single address that they give you. This is their home page address. From the home page, you can get to all the other pages on their site.
Since it sounds like geography is involved, a Web site is rather easily confused with a Web server. A server in this context is a computer that holds the files for one or more sites. On one hand, a very large Web site may reside on a number of servers that may be located in different geographic locations.
“Web presence” seems to express the idea that a site is not tied to a specific geographic location, but is “somewhere in cyberspace.” However, “Web site” seems to be used much more frequently.
W3C (World Wide Web Consortium) exists to realize the full potential of the Web.
The W3C is an industry consortium which seeks to promote standards for the evolution ofthe Web and interoperability between WWW products by producing specifications andreference software. Although W3C is funded by industrial members, it is vendor-neutral,and its products are freely available to all.